Equal Loudness Curves
You will see lots of references to equal loudness curves or equal loudness contours. These are based on the work of Fletcher
and Munson at Bell labs in the 30s, or perhaps refinements made more recently by Robinson and Dadson. These were made
by asking people to judge when pure tones of two different frequencies were the same loudness. This is a very difficult
judgement to make, and the curves are the average results from many subjects, so they should be considered general indicators
rather than a prescription as to what a single individual might hear.
Fig 2. Equal loudness contours or Fletcher-Munson curves.
The numbers on each curve identify it in terms of phons, a unit of loudness that compensates for frequency effects. To find the
phon value of an intensity measurement, find the db reading and frequency on the graph, then see which curve it lands on.
The interesting aspects of these curves are that it is difficult to hear low frequency of soft sounds, and that the ear is extra
sensitive between 1 and 6 kilohertz.